Article, is written by Mary E. Sanders, Ph.D
Adjunct Professor, University of Nevada, Reno and Director of Wave Aerobics®.
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Burnin’ The Fat....
in Deep Water
One of the greatest benefits of water is that the natural resistance of water is used to stimulate both cardio respiratory AND muscular endurance conditioning. Training studies conducted in water, indicated significant body fat loss along with significant muscular strength/endurance gains (Barretta, Hoeger, Sanders, Ruoti). The benefits of deep water include zero impact for a low joint stress, high intensity cardio workout with some cross over muscular conditioning. Research by Grediagin et al (1995), suggests that if fat loss is the goal of a program and time is limited, people should be encouraged to exercise safely at as high an intensity as tolerable to expend as much energy (kcal) as possible during their allotted time. Water provides a safe and effective environment to work at high intensity without some of the risks associated with impact on the land. Hit the pool for serious results or cross train using a “surf” and “turf” approach, alternating wet/dry workouts for balance. Be sure to learn the proper water running techniques to optimize training. Frangolias & Rhodes (1995) suggested that “water skills” are important to maximizing results. The subjects in their study who were “water trained” achieved higher intensities than those who did not know how to use the water effectively. keep in mind, water running is a “learned skill”, similar to other sports such as tennis. Let’s examine the guidelines for training targeting weight control as published by the American College of Sports Medicine. ....AFAA and a member / presenter, currently certified by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)...
Note: Consult a physician prior to starting any new workout regime.
Make sure to monitor intensity during the workout using perceived exertion, heart rate monitoring or the “talk test”.
Three days/week program:
Four days/week program:
Kcal Workout "BURN"
References available on request. --Mary E. Sanders
! INTERNATIONAL WATER FITNESS EVENTS !
Mary E. Sanders, Ph.D
Associate Professor, School of Medicine, Adjunct Professor, School of Public Health, University of Nevada, Reno and Director of WaterFitÒ/Golden Wavesâ; Affiliated Faculty, Sanford Center for Aging University of Nevada; Associate Editor of ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal for the American College of Sports Medicine; Advisory board member for International Council on Active Aging; columnist The Journal of Active Aging; Faculty member, Thera-Band® Advisory Board & Research Advisory Committee, TRAC Academy, Editor/co-author of YMCA Water Fitness for Health and developer of WaterFit Ò and the SpeedoÒ Aquatic Fitness Systems. Mary has been active for 20 years conducting research in exercise sciences & leadership, training instructors globally and as an international presenter and author. She can be contacted at www.waterfit.com .
Current Research Projects:
Mary is certified as a Health & Fitness Instructor by ACE and ACSM and a continuing education provider for a number of certification organizations.
HOT NEW Articles & Info Sources !
Contact the publishers or associations for membership information or single copies/reprints of the article.
ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, www.acsm.org .
The Journal on Active Aging, www.icaa.cc
Perspective, Journal of the Association of Professional Directors of YMCAs, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
IDEA Fitness Journal, www.ideafit.com
Fit Germany, Fitness Professionals, June, 2000. www.aquateam.de
Running Training and Road Running Training Improve V02 max in Untrained
! Professional Website Links !
College of Sports Medicine, ACSM's Health &
Exercise Association: http://www.aeawave.com
Southwest Fitness: www.dswfitness.com
International Council on Active Aging: www.icaa.cc
IDEA, The Health & Fitness Source: http://www.ideafit.com
YMCA of the USA: http://www.YMCA.net
WaterFit, Wet in SHAPE Workout!
SELF MAGAZINE July/August 2005 for the complete
Mary E. Sanders, MS
by Tracy Frankel.
water exercises into your personal training program or your land based
group exercise program provides unique training benefits. Besides
“surprising” the body with a totally new movement environment, water
provides an opportunity for you to explore how the body moves without
constraints of gravity and fear of falling.
The trunk “core” (abdominals, erector spine and obliques)
are constantly stimulated by currents, pushing and pulling, for postural
training. Two of the
greatest benefits include:
two benefits put you in charge of your own workouts and create an
opportunity to focus on powerful resistance overload for muscular
conditioning and/or vigorous lower body movements targeting cardio
provides an effective environment for any fitness level or age of
student. Athletes who need
to increase the volume of their training without increasing risk of
injury find water’s resistance a tough workout, without the same joint
stress as their land drills. Baby Boomers can keep up with their
activity dreams. According to a report in the financial publication,
Barron’s (1998) “baby boomers are refusing to go quietly into middle
age. Emergency room
admissions for sports injuries of people over 40 years old have
increased by 60% between 1986 and 1996”. A physical medicine physician
I spoke with said that water is the one environment where “sofa
athletes” can safely workout “like the athletes they are in their
mind”. For older adults, water’s safety and accommodating resistance
offer a safe chance for people who are challenged by their ability to
perform simple activities of daily living by improving skills that
seemed easier when they were young.
By including water as a component of a complete exercise program,
you can train vigorously comfortably while developing lifetime skills
that keep you active as your bodies change over time.
Cross Training with Cross-over benefits
all the great points listed above, another great reason to hit the pool
is the opportunity for time efficient training during a single session.
Expenditure: For weight management the American College of Sports Medicine
recommends 3 sessions of exercise per week with an intensity high enough
to expend 250-300 kcal/session or 4 days a week at an intensity high
enough to expend 200 kcal/week.
show that estimated kcal expenditure of water exercise ranges from 5-15
kcal/minute, comparable to land exercise (with less orthopedic stress to
the lower body). Training studies resulted in an average decrease in
body fat of 1-3% after about 8 weeks of training.
For health it’s recommended that resistance training be performed
twice a week.
resistance of movement performed at an average speed is estimated to be
about 12 to 15 times that of air based on water being about 800 times
denser than air. Since all movements can be resisted in the water,
muscular conditioning can be performed functionally – using patterns
of daily living in multiple planes. Studies show impressive significant
gains in muscular endurance after 8 weeks of training with some subjects
moving from a category of below average to above average in fitness
level according to the YMCA evaluations.
Older adults showed significant improvements daily activities
such as the sit to stand, speed walk (16% faster with fewer steps
taken), agility, biceps curls for lifting and stair climb (Sanders, et
Fitness. The objective is to accumulate at least 30 minutes of
moderate-intensity exercise on most preferably all days of the week.
Training studies show significant cardiorespiratory
improvements. In some cases intensity in the water was higher when
compared to an equivalent activity on land. Water’s buoyancy can
reduce impact progressively. As water depth increases, weight bearing
decreases, until it is zero during deep water exercise, performed with
the support of a buoyancy belt. Your can perform vigorous exercise
without the “cost” of lower body impact making your session more
Flexibility: Range of motion exercises included 2- 3 days per week as
part of the warm-up and cool down exercises. Significant improvements in
flexibility were noted with greater improvements noted during water
exercise when compared to land exercise groups.
training: Muscular conditioning exercises for the upper body can be designed to
use the lower body vigorously enough to contribute to cardio work.
Water’s viscosity naturally provides resistance for both cardio
challenge and upper body muscular endurance as the arms are worked
constantly for balance and movement coordination.
posture, posture: Water’s buoyancy and currents, stimulate the postural muscles
constantly as students try to maintain balance, stabilize and change
positions. Moving the body
from horizontal to vertical, provide unique trunk work that may
translate to postural control and movement corrections on the land.
Cardio & Resistance Training: Sforzo and colleagues in 1998 investigated a time
efficient land training format that was based on targeting both cardio
and resistance work during one session (performed 3 days per week).
Their results suggested that when clients alternated stationary
cycling (performed at target heart rates) immediately followed by upper
body resistance exercises (6-10 repetitions maximum), they gained BOTH
muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness (Sforzo et al, 1998). One of the
disadvantages of this type of format for land training is the need for
equipment that is available for quick transitions. By using the entire pool as our training “machine” a
similar “one stop shopping” format can address both single clients
webbed gloves to assist with balance and for extra surface area overload
for upper bodywork.
are in Charge! Regulate your own – on demand intensity:
Intensity: Listen to your body.
reduce intensity, use the 4 S’s:
increase intensity, use the 4 S’s again:
Increase Size of the move
Drink water occasionally during the pool session
Use a sculling or figure eight motion with your
hands for balance and to assist travel.
equipment: Webbed gloves for balance and water shoes for traction,
protection and support, buoyancy belt. Paddles can be added for extra
resistance and tethers can be added for extra challenge to the core
stabilizers. Slo Mo soft balls are added for core and balance work .
Available through Fitness Wholesale, 1-888-396-7337, or through www.waterfit.com
into SHAPE! Workout
Water Ready to Play Warm-up: (5 minutes) Find a proper working depth so you can
work in control, shallow water between navel and nipple.
Target: Adjust to
buoyancy and feel the resistance of water while you warm-up the body.
Kcal cost: approximately 7 kcal/min.
light easy moves in place such as jogging, rocking, scissors or easy
jumping to warm-up the body and get adjusted to the feel of water’s
buoyancy and resistance. Stabilize
using a sculling movement (like smoothing sand you’re your hands at
the surface). Check body alignment, ears, shoulders and hips lined up.
Be sure to press heels to the bottom occasionally.
Gradually increase the size of the moves and then speed to
Cardioresistance Back Waves for upper back (5 minutes
an overload level that is lower than your maximal but still
challenging. During the sets focus on performing the entire
movement with maximal effort by both the upper and lower body.
fun and to provide rest: focus on upper body work, then switch and
focus on lower body work...then without changing intensity of the
lower body, add the upper body work and work the entire body.
Target: Cardiorespiratory endurance, agility and core stabilization. Shallow water running can “cost” an estimated 17 kcal/min, when performed at maximal effort, navel to nipple depth. Alternate “Go Easy/Go Hard” for a more comfortable interval approach.
Crossover: All sports with running, “cutting” and cardio endurance.
Run or walk in water, navel to nipple deep using good form, begin slowly and gradually increase pace, pushing the water out of your way. Quick reverse and change directions working against the currents you’ve created. Move forward, backwards, laterally, diagonally, in circles, and zig zags.
Intensity Progression: Gradually increase speed and change directions against the current more quickly or frequently. Team train with a partner calling out directional changes while they draft off your currents.
To increase intensity more, intensity lift knees higher, run faster, work the arms through the water with more force to increase the muscular endurance work, pushing and pulling for crossover training, then increase the distance covered. Hold a submerged kickboard for a buggy walk that targets isometric postural work for the upper body and cardio at the same time. Use RPE to check intensity.
Low Intensity Run slowly using small strides.
Enlarge the size of the stride and movement
Change directions, zig zag, working against the currents.
Push the shopping cart by adding a kickboard, half submerged, holding it in front. Challenge your core stabilizers more by holding the board out to the side and continue your chaos walk/run pace. Go suspended and kick, for more core stabilization work! Check that shoulders are down and back, wrists in neutral alignment!Higher Intensity
Target: Agility, Cardio, Coordination and Balance
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